SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
This chapter was originally based on government guidance issued in 2008. Further non-statutory government good practice guidance ‘Safeguarding children who may have been trafficked’ was issued by the Department for Education and the Home Office in October 2011.
The chapter will continue to be monitored and reviewed by the PSCB as required.
Section 3, Important Information about Trafficking was updated in January 2011 and links were added to the following publications:
ECPAT – UK Briefing Paper on Child Trafficking – Begging and Organised Crime (published in September 2010).
Safeguarding Trafficked Roma Children and Families, (published by the London Safeguarding Children Board in September 2010).
The chapter was further updated in January 2012 when links were added in Section 8 to the non-statutory government good practice guidance ‘Safeguarding children who may have been trafficked’ which was issued by the Department for Education and the Home Office in October 2011 and Trafficked Children Toolkit, developed by the London Safeguarding Children Board and launched in February 2011.
See also Hidden Children Guidance.
The organised crime of child trafficking into the UK has become an issue of considerable concern to all professionals with responsibility for the care and protection of children. Any form of trafficking children is an abuse. Children are coerced, deceived or forced into the control of others who seek to profit from their exploitation and suffering. Some cases involve UK-born children being trafficked within the UK.
It is essential that professionals working across social care, education, health, immigration and law enforcement develop an awareness of this activity and an ability to identify trafficked children.
This guidance provides information about trafficking, the roles and functions of relevant agencies and the procedures practitioners should follow to ensure the safety and well-being of children who it is suspected have been trafficked.
The definition of trafficking contained in the ‘Palermo Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children’ (ratified by the UK in 2006) is as follows:
“Trafficking of persons” shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of person, by means of the threat of or use
- Of force or other forms of coercion;
- Of abduction;
- Of fraud;
- Of deception;
- Of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability; or
- Of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
A child is defined according to the Children Acts 1989 and 2004 as anyone who has not yet reached their 18th birthday.
Any child transported for exploitative reasons is considered to be a trafficking victim, whether or not they have been forced or deceived. This is partly because it is not considered possible for children in this situation to give informed consent. Even when a child understands what has happened, they may still appear to submit willingly to what they believe to be the will of their parents or accompanying adults. It is important that these children are protected also.
This definition is inclusive of internal trafficking or trafficking of children within borders.
3. Important Information about Trafficking
Most children are trafficked for financial gain. This can include payment from or to the child’s parents. In most cases, the trafficker also receives payment from those wanting to exploit the child once in the UK. Trafficking is carried out by organised gangs and individual adults or agents.
Trafficked children may be used for:
- Sexual exploitation;
- Domestic service;
- Sweatshop, restaurant and other catering work;
- Credit card fraud;
- Begging* or pick pocketing or other forms of petty criminal activity;
- Agricultural labour, including tending plants in illegal cannabis farms;
- Benefit fraud;
- Drug mules, drug dealing or decoys for adult drug traffickers;
- Illegal inter-country adoptions.
*Please see the ECPAT – UK Briefing Paper on Child Trafficking – Begging and Organised Crime published in September 2010, which draws attention to the issues of children who are trafficked for the purposes of forced begging and the specific criminal offences which may have been committed in the UK by the adults concerned. It emphasises that forced child begging should be seen as a form of exploitation and more recently has been considered a form of servitude and modern slavery. It highlights this as a particular, but not exclusive, problem with Romanian adults and children.
Children may be trafficked from a number of different countries for a variety of different reasons**. Factors which can make children vulnerable to trafficking are varied and include such things as poverty, lack of education, discrimination and disadvantage, political conflict and economic transition, inadequate local laws and regulations. It is also true that whilst there is a demand for children within the UK, trafficking will continue to be a problem.
** Please also refer to Safeguarding Trafficked Roma Children and Families, a briefing published by the London Safeguarding Children Board for the attention of all LSCB’s in September 2010 in relation to the heightened concern regarding the risk to Roma children and families around human trafficking, which stems from a number of police operations carried out in Romania and the UK.
In order to recruit children, a variety of coercive methods are used such as abduction or kidnapping as well as more subversive ways such as the promise of education, respectable employment or a better life. It has been suggested that children have been brought in via internet transactions, foster arrangements and contracts as domestic staff, or been tricked into a bogus marriage for the purpose of forcing them into prostitution. Although there is no evidence of other forms of exploitation such as ‘organ donation, or harvesting’, all agencies should remain vigilant.
Many children travel to the UK on false documents. The creation of a false identity for a child can give a trafficker direct control over every aspect of the child’s life. Even before they travel to the UK children may be subject to various forms of abuse and exploitation to ensure that the trafficker’s control over the child continues after the child is transferred to someone else’s care.
Any port of entry into the UK may be used by traffickers via air, rail and sea and as checks on main entry points are increased evidence suggests that traffickers are using more local entry points.
There is increasing evidence that children of both UK and other citizenship are being trafficked internally within the UK for very similar reasons to those outlined above. There is evidence of teenage girls born in the UK being targeted for internal trafficking between towns and cities for sexual exploitation. (see Protecting Children in Specific Circumstances Procedure).
Trafficked children are victims of serious crime and this will impact on their health and welfare. In order to coerce and control, they are commonly subject to physical abuse including use of drugs and alcohol, emotional and psychological abuse, sexual abuse and neglect as a result of a lack of care about their welfare and the need for secrecy surrounding their circumstances.
4. Managing Individual Situations
4.1 Identification of Trafficked Children
All practitioners who come into contact with children and young people in their everyday work need to be able to recognise children who have been trafficked, and be competent to act to support and protect these children from harm.
The nationality or immigration status of the child does not affect any agency’s statutory responsibilities to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Nationality and immigration issues should be discussed with the Border and Immigration Agency (BIA) only when the child’s need for protection from harm has been addressed and should not hold up action to protect the child.
4.2 Possible indicators:
Identification of trafficked children may be difficult as they might not show obvious signs of distress or abuse. Some children are unaware that they have been trafficked, while others may actively participate in hiding that they have been trafficked.
The following indicators are not a definitive list and are intended as a guide to be included in a wider assessment of the child’s circumstances.
At port of entry, the child;
- Has entered the country illegally, has no passport or means of identification or has false documentation;
- Is unable to confirm the name and address of the person meeting them on arrival;
- Has had their journey or visa arranged by someone other than themselves or their family;
- Is accompanied by an adult who insists on remaining with the child at all times;
- Is withdrawn and refuses to talk or appears afraid to talk to a person in authority;
- Has a prepared story similar to those that other children have given;
- Is unable or is reluctant to give details of accommodation or other personal details.
Whilst resident in the UK, the child;
- Does not appear to have money but does have a mobile phone;
- Receives unexplained/unidentified phone calls whilst in placement / temporary accommodation;
- Has a history of missing links and unexplained moves;
- Is required to earn a minimum amount of money every day, works in various locations, has limited amount of movement, is known to beg for money;
- Is being cared for by adult/s who are not their parents and the quality of the relationship between the child and their adult carers is not good;
- Is one among a number of unrelated children found at one address;
- Has not been registered with or attended a GP practice; has not been enrolled in school.
Children internally trafficked in the UK, indicators include:
- Physical symptoms indicating physical or sexual assault;
- Behaviour indicating sexual exploitation;
- Phone calls or letters from adults outside the usual range of contacts;
- Persistently missing; missing for long periods; returning looking well cared for despite having no known base;
- Possession of large amounts of money; acquisition of expensive clothes, mobile phones without plausible explanation;
- Low self-image, low self-esteem, self-harming behaviour, truancy and disengagement with education.
Any agency or individual practitioner or volunteer who has a concern regarding the possible trafficking of a child should immediately make a referral under the Referrals Procedure. Practitioners should not do anything which would heighten the risk of harm or abduction to the child.
Prompt decisions are needed when the concerns relate to a child who may be trafficked in order to act before the child goes missing.
Decision making following the receipt of a referral will normally follow discussions with the Police, the person making the referral and may involve other professionals and services – see those identified in Section 9, Support Services.
4.4 Initial Assessment
Specific action during the Initial Assessment of a child who is possibly trafficked should include:
- Seeing and speaking with the child and family members as appropriate – the adult purporting to be the child’s parent, sponsor or carer should not be present at interviews with the child, or at meetings to discuss future actions;
- Drawing together and analysing information from a range of sources, including relevant information from the country or countries in which the child has lived. All agencies involved should request this information from their counterparts overseas. Information about who to contact can be obtained via the Foreign and Commonwealth Office or the appropriate Embassy or Consulate in London;
- Checking all documentation held by child, the family, the referrer and other agencies. Copies of all relevant documentation should be taken and together with a photograph of the child be included in the social worker’s file.
Even if there are no apparent concerns, child welfare agencies should continue to monitor the situation until the child is appropriately settled.
4.5 Strategy Discussion and Section 47 Enquiries
The Strategy Discussion should decide whether to conduct a joint interview with the child and if necessary, with the family or carers. Under no circumstances should the child and their family members or carers be interviewed together.
Professional interpreters, who have been approved and DBS checked, should be used where English is not the child’s preferred language. Under no circumstances should the interpreter be the sponsor or another adult purporting to be the parent, guardian or relative.
4.6 Multi-agency Meeting
On completion of a Section 47 Enquiry a meeting should be held with the social worker, their supervising manager, the referring agency as appropriate, the Police and other relevant professionals to decide on future action. Further action should not be taken until this meeting has been held and multi-agency agreement obtained to the proposed plan, including the need for a Child Protection Conference and Child Protection Plan.
Where it is found that the child is not a family member and is not related to any other person in this country, consideration should be given as to whether the child needs to be moved from the household and/or legal advice sought on making a separate application for immigration status.
Any law enforcement action regarding fraud, trafficking, deception and illegal entry to this country is the remit of the Police and the local authority should assist in any way possible.
5. What Trafficked Children Need
Trafficked children need:
- Professionals to be informed and competent in matters relating to trafficking and exploitation;
- Someone to spend sufficient time with them to build up a level of trust;
- Interviewed separately, at no stage should adults purporting to be the child’s parent, sponsor or carer be present at interviews or at meetings to discuss future action;
- Safe placements if children are victims of organised trafficking operations and for their whereabouts to be kept confidential;
- Legal advice about their rights and immigration status;
- Discretion and caution to be used in tracing their families;
- Risk assessment made of the danger if he or she is repatriated; and
- Where appropriate, accommodation under Section 20 of the Children Act 1989 or an application of an Interim Care Order.
6. Returning Trafficked Children to their Country of Origin
In many cases, trafficked children apply to the Border and Immigration Agency (BIA) for asylum or for humanitarian protection. For some, returning to their country of origin presents a high risk of being re-trafficked, further exploitation and abuse.
If a child does not qualify for asylum or humanitarian protection and adequate reception arrangements are in place in the country of origin, the child will usually have to return. It is important that this is handled sensitively and with assistance with reintegration which is available through voluntary return schemes.
7. Trafficked Children who are Looked After
Trafficked children identified as Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children (UASC) may be accommodated by the local authority under Section 20 of the Children Act 1989. See also East of England Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children Safeguarding Protocol.
The assessment of their needs to inform their Care Plan should include a risk assessment of how the local authority intends to protect them from any trafficker being able to re-involve the child in exploitative activities. This plan should include contingency plans to be followed if the child goes missing.
Whilst the child is looked after, residential and foster carers should be vigilant about, for example, waiting cars outside the premises, telephone enquiries etc.
The local authority should continue to share information with the Police, which emerges during the placement of a child who may have been trafficked, concerning potential crimes against the child, risk to other children, or relevant immigration matters.
Significant numbers of children who are categorised as UASC have also been trafficked. Some of these children go missing before they are properly identified as victims of trafficking. Such cases should be urgently reported to the police. Local authorities should consider seriously the risk that a trafficked child is likely to go missing.
See also Joint Protocol for Safeguarding Children and Young People who Go Missing from Home or Care.
The Missing People Helpline and the NSPCC Child Trafficking Advice and Information Helpline (0800 107 7057) can offer support.
8. International and UK Legislation
International agreements and legal instruments relevant to trafficked and exploited children include
- Council Of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking Human Beings (2005);
- The Yokohama Global Commitment on the Commercial Exploitation of Children (Yokohama 2001);
- UN Convention on Rights of the Child (UN 1989) and its protocols on Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2000) and Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (2000);
- Declaration and Agenda for Action on Commercial Exploitation of Children (Stockholm,1996).
In 2000 trafficking became enshrined in international law for the first time through the Palermo Protocol.
UK legislation and guidance relevant to trafficked and exploited children includes:
- Children Act 1989 – Sections 17, 20, 47, 67 (Private Fostering);
- Children Act 1989 – Parental Responsibility;
- Children Act 2004;
- The Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 – Sections 54 & 55 (section 55 does not apply to unaccompanied minors);
- Sexual Offences Act 2003 – covers trafficking into, out of, or within the UK for any form of sexual offence. It also introduced new offences of abuse of children through prostitution and pornography;
- The Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants etc.) Act 2004 – includes the offence of ‘trafficking for exploitation’;
- Adoption and Children Act 2002;
- What to do if you’re worried a child is being abused (2006);
- UK Borders Act 2007 – requires the Secretary of State to publish a Code of Practice, ‘Keeping Children Safe from Harm’ which BIA officials are required to follow when dealing with children in the UK;
- Safeguarding Children and Young People from Sexual Exploitation (June 2009);
- The UK Action Plan on Tackling Human Trafficking (2007);
- Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Act 2009 ;
- Statutory guidance (November 2009) for the UK Border Agency on making arrangements to safeguard and promote the welfare of children;
- Working Together to Safeguard Children (2010) (now archived) (in particular information on the National Referral Mechanism set out in paragraphs 6.58 – 6.66);
- Non-statutory government good practice guidance ‘Safeguarding children who may have been trafficked’ which was issued by the Department for Education and the Home Office in October 2011;
- Trafficked Children Toolkit, developed by the London Safeguarding Children Board and launched in February 2011.
9. Support Services and Useful Contacts
UK Human Trafficking Centre (UKHTC)(0114 252 3891)
CEOP – Child Exploitation and On-line Protection Centre (020 7238 2320)
NSPCC Child Trafficking Advice and Information Line (0800 107 7057) – an advice and information service for professionals available since October 2007, a case consultancy service is also available by appointment.
Refugee Council Children’s Panel – Provides support to unaccompanied asylum-seeking children.
ECPAT UK (020 7233 9887) – UK children’s rights organisation campaigning to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation
UNICEF (020 7405 5592)
Afruca (Africans Unite Against Child Abuse) (020 7704 2261) Promotes the welfare of African children in the UK and is concerned about cruelty against African children.
CROP – Coalition for the Removal of Pimping (0113 240 3040) A voluntary organisation working to end the sexual exploitation of children and young people by pimps and traffickers
Foreign and Commonwealth Office website (0207 008 1500)
Crime Reduction Toolkits – The Trafficking Toolkit
The Missing People Helpline and the NSPCC Child Trafficking Advice and Information Helpline (0800 107 7057)